Biological Resources include agriculture, forestry, and biologically-derived waste, and there are many other renewable bioresource examples. One of the scientific terms used to denote renewable bioresources is lignocellulose. Lignocellulosic tissues are biologically-derived natural resources containing some of the main constituents of the natural world. 1) Holocellulose is the carbohydrate fraction of lignocellulose that includes cellulose, a common building block made of sugar (glucose) that is the most abundant biopolymer, as well as hemicellulose. 2) Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. Cellulose and lignin are two of the primary natural polymers used by plants to store energy as well as to give strength, as is the case in woody plant tissues. Other energy storage chemicals in plants include oils, waxes, fats, etc., and because these other plant compounds have distinct properties, they offer potential for a host of different Bio-Products.

Conventional Bio-Products and Emerging Bio-Products are two broad categories used to categorize bioproducts. Examples of conventional bio-based products include building materials, pulp and paper, and forest products. Examples of emerging bioproducts or biobased products include biofuels, bioenergy, starch-based and cellulose-based ethanol, bio-based adhesives, biochemicals, bioplastics, etc. Emerging bioproducts are active subjects of research and development, and these efforts have developed significantly since the turn of the 20/21st century, in part driven by the price of traditional petroleum-based products, by the environmental impact of petroleum use, and by an interest in many countries to become independent from foreign sources of oil. Bio-Products derived from bioresources can replace much of the fuels, chemicals, plastics etc. that are currently derived from petroleum.